Lunar regolith grains and dust was found to adhere to all surfaces it came into contact with, including radiators, solar cells, space suits and hand tools. Dust coating and contamination may cause more severe problems such as components overheating, clogging of mechanisms, seal failures, material abrasion, and so on. In this paper, study results on the nature of lunar dust, the interaction mechanism between lunar dust and lunar exploration systems, lunar dust environment simulation strategy are reviewed. A conceptual design of small lunar dust environment simulation system is performed accordingly. The system is a necessary tool to experimentally study the nature of lunar dust, and may serve for the test facility of lunar exploration system material chosen tests, mechanical system reliability tests and dust protection strategy verification tests.