The prerequisite of target detection and tracking is to model and represent the target based on multi-dimensional features extracted from the target region. The traditional target feature extraction needs to connect the target region first and then must calculate the target feature, which has still room for improvement in real-time. An advantage of the new method based on the synchronous calculation of pixel-connected domain markers and target features is that the target features can be output when the target region is connected. The process establishes a feature transfer mechanism, creates a marker table, a marker mapping table, and a feature attribute table simultaneously when scanning images, and uses the marker mapping table to associate the marker table and the feature attribute table. The marker merging and feature attribute transfer calculation are performed synchronously at the time of region adjacency, which ensures the real-time target feature extraction. As a result, the method proved to be effective because of an implementation scheme based on an FPGA system design. Simulation test results show that this method has several outstanding features: the time of connected domain markers is close to the theoretical minimum; the storage of images utilizes the circular buffer with low resource consumption; marking and computation are processed in parallel flow to improve detection and tracking efficiency; multi-target features are tested and verified to be accurate, which can effectively support subsequent target tracking detection; and it has theoretical and practical values.