To obtain as much exploration data as possible with limitations of low communication capability and insufficient energy, Zhurong Mars rover payloads need to improve scientific exploration efficiency. There are two major operating conditions for the payloads, conducting roving exploration when the rover moves and in situ exploration when the rover stops. Serval high-efficiency payload exploration modes were developed for those two conditions. The exploration mode, working with autonomous control based on work mode command set, solved the problem of multiple payloads performing collaborative scientific exploration under resource shortage conditions. The Zhurong Mars rover has successfully completed the scheduled exploration mission. All scientific exploration modes have been verified. The results demonstrate that the exploration modes are suitable and effective, and can meet the requirements of conducting safe, autonomous and efficient scientific exploration.