As a passive measurement method, the ground-based photoelectric observation is not limited by the equipment on the satellite and can be used to measure most of Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) targets above the station. The ground-based photoelectric observation has the advantages of low operating cost, strong intuition and high measurement precision, hence it can play an important role in monitoring the GEO targets. In order to evaluate the actual monitoring ability for GEO targets based on the photoelectric telescope at one single station, observation experiments of 3 Beidou GEO satellites are carried out by 1.56-meter telescope with CCD drift-scan photoelectric technology of Shanghai Astronomical Observatory. The external precisions are estimated by the precise ephemeris of the satellites. The results show that the accuracy of the celestial positioning of the GEO satellites is better than 0.3" in both azimuth and elevation. In the case of single observation pass, although the accuracy of orbit prediction is low, the orbit determination accuracy during observation arc is better than 100m. The effect of orbit improvement based on multi-pass of observations is obvious. In the absence of orbit control, the orbit determination accuracy is better than 50m, and the prediction precision of extrapolating to 4-day is about the order of hundreds of meters. In addition, the accuracy of the orbit prediction of the GEO target in the case of different observation time span is quantitatively evaluated, which can provide the reference for the practical application of the CCD drift-scan photoelectric telescope at one single station.