摘要: Gravitropic curvature growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls mainly occurred in the rapid growing Elongation Zone (EZI), not in the slow-growing Elongation Zone (EZⅡ). By examining reorientation of Microtubules (MT) and phenotype of the cell wall in the EZI and the EZⅡ of Arabidopsis hypocotyls under normal gravitational condition, it is found that MTs in the rapid growing epidermal cells were mainly in the transverse direction, while those in the non-growing epidermal cells were in the longitudinal directions. However, this difference in cortical MT arrays between the EZI and EZⅡ cells disappeared when the seedlings were exposed to the simulated microgravity condition on a horizontal clinostat. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that the surface texture of epidermal cells, like the direction of the MT, in the EZI and the EZⅡ also became similar when exposed to the simulated microgravity condition. This result indicated that simulate microgravity could modify the potential differentiation between the EZI and the EZⅡ by affecting the orientation of cortical MT in the epidermal cells.
摘要: This paper presents a new concept to perform space-to-space Very Long Baseline Interferometry which enables the imaging of cosmic sources at high-resolution and high-sensitivity with small antennas. Several individual apertures are embarked on separate identical satellites staggered in height into Polar or Equatorial Circular Medium Earth Orbits (PECMEO orbits). These orbits are stable and allow GNSS-based on-the-fly centimeter-level relative positioning. Coherent operation is possible by exchanging local oscillator components and measured signals through Inter-Satellite Links (ISL). On-board cross correlation is performed at each satellite over a delay window compatible with the accuracy of the on-the-fly relative positioning and the result sent to the ground. Image reconstruction is completed on the ground thanks to sub-millimeter baseline retrieval from accurate GNSS orbits, ISL ranging and spacecraft attitude information. The application of this concept to image the Super Massive Black Hole Sgr A* is hinted.