摘要: Alfvén waves are found to be ubiquitous in the solar wind. Recent progress in observational studies of the waves is reviewed to formulate a microscopic picture for the Alfvénic fluctuations. The main aspects of the observational properties of these waves, including the wave intervals, propagation, evolution, origin and generation, are presented. Then Alfvén wave heating and acceleration of the solar wind plasma are briefly introduced. The relation of the waves to rotational and tangential discontinuities, magnetic decreases, and other relatively large-scale structures such as flux tubes/ropes, magnetic clouds and interplanetary coronal mass ejections in the solar wind is particularly investigated. Finally, some remaining open questions are also indicated due to their fundamental importance of understanding of the physical nature of Alfvén waves and the role of the waves in heating and accelerating the solar wind.
摘要: 基于1996-2005年88个引起重大地磁暴的CME(日冕物质抛射)事件、1996-2000年的47个CME事件以及1997-2002年的29个全晕状CME事件,结合ACE卫星在1AU处的太阳风和行星际磁场观测资料以及Wilcox Solar Observatory(WSO)天文台的太阳光球层磁图,分析了背景太阳风速度和日球电流片对CME到达1AU处渡越时间预报误差的影响.结果表明,背景太阳风速度与CME渡越时间误差并没有明显的相关性,在考虑了磁云通量管轴相对黄道面夹角的影响后相关性依然不明显.然而日球电流片对CME渡越时间却有明显的影响,对于初速度较小的异侧CME事件,其渡越时间大于同侧事件;而对于具有较大初速度的CME事件,异侧事件的渡越时间明显小于同侧事件.研究结果表明,CME与太阳风以及日球电流片的相互作用并不是简单的对流相互作用,造成高速CME异侧事件快于同侧事件到达地球的因素非常复杂,有待深入研究.
摘要: A Double Sodium Layer (DSL) structure was observed during the night of August 22, 2011 over Haikou, China (20°N, 110°E) by Na lidar. This DSL comprised a typical sodium layer at altitudes of 80~105km and a higher sodium layer at altitudes of 105~115km in about 0.5 h. A wavelength of 589nm dye laser pumped by a Nd: YAG laser was used to make the measurement. The backscattered fluorescence photons from the sodium layer were collected by a telescope with a primary mirror of 1000mm in diameter. The sodium density of these layers during the nighttime observation in the Mesosphere and Lower-Thermosphere (MLT) was studied.
摘要: The evolution of two-dimensional (2D) electron phase-space holes (electron holes) has been previously investigated with electrostatic Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations, which neglect ion dynamics. The electron holes are found to be unstable to the transverse instability, and their evolution is determined by the combined action between the transverse instability and the stabilization by the background magnetic field. In this paper, the effect of ion dynamics on the evolution of an electron hole is studied. In weakly magnetized plasma (Ωe < ωpe, where Ωe and ωpe are electron gyrofrequency and plasma frequency, respectively), the electron hole is still unstable to the transverse instability. However, it evolves a little faster and is destroyed in a shorter time when ion dynamics is considered. In strongly magnetized plasma (Ωe > ωpe), the electron hole is broken due to the lower hybrid waves, and its evolution is much faster.