摘要: The Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), such as the atmospheric thermodynamic state variables and greenhouse gases, play an important role in the atmosphere physical processes and global climate change. Given the need of improvements in existing ground-based and satellite observations to successfully deliver atmosphere and climate benchmark data and reduce data ambiguity, the Climate and Atmospheric Composition Exploring Satellites mission (CACES) was proposed and selected as a candidate mission of the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy Science (SPRPCAS). This paper presents an overview of the key scientific questions and responses of ECVs in relation to global change; the principles, algorithms, and payloads of microwave occultation using centimeter and millimeter wave signals between low Earth orbit satellites (LEO-LEO microwave occultation, LMO) as well as of the LEO-LEO infrared-laser occultation (LIO); the CACES mission with its scientific objectives, mission concept, spacecraft and instrumentation.
摘要: 日冕物质抛射（Coronal Mass Ejection，CME）参数识别模型是太阳风预报过程的重要组成部分.在空间环境预报业务中，为提高太阳风预报的准确率，需要提高CME参数识别的精度.模型以计算任务串行的方式运行，运算效率低导致模型运算时间长，不能满足这种需求.CME参数识别模型的物理运算过程相互不独立，其在单节点上的运行方式不能满足并行化要求.基于MapReduce的并行计算框架，改进了CME参数识别模型的计算流程，提出CDMR（CME detection under MapReduce）方法，实现了CME参数识别模型的并行计算，并对比分析CME参数识别模型在串行计算和MapReduce并行计算下的运行时间，提高了模型的识别精度和计算效率.
摘要: Whistler mode chorus waves are important electromagnetic emissions due to their dual roles in acceleration and loss processes of Earth’s radiation belt electrons. A detailed global survey of lower-band chorus is performed using EMFISIS data from Van Allen Probes in near-equatorial orbits. In addition to the confirmation of the positive correlation of chorus wave intensities to geomagnetic activity and dayside-nightside distribution asymmetry of wave amplitude and occurrence probability, the analysis results find that in statistics lower-band chorus emissions exhibit higher wave occurrence rates and larger normalized peak wave frequencies in the magnetically northern hemisphere but somehow stronger peak wave intensities in the magnetically southern hemisphere. While overall the differences between the two magnetically hemispheric distributions tend to be not significant, it is important to establish the magnetically hemispheric distribution profiles of lowerband chorus with respect to L-shell, magnetic local time, and geomagnetic latitude for improved understanding of chorus-induced dynamics of radiation belt electrons.
摘要: From Aug. 2013 to Oct. 2015, a Rayleigh lidar has been used to study the middle atmosphere at Golmud (36.25°N, 94.54°E), Qinghai, located in the northeastern part of the Tibetan Plateau. Mesospheric density profiles from 50 to 90 km were retrieved based on 205 nights of lidar observation, with a total of 1616 hours of operation. We compared our lidar density measurements with SABER observations onboard TIMED satellite and MSIS-00 model data. The results showed that the annual mean density measured by lidar agreed well with SABER data, but both were lower than that of MSIS-00. All datasets exhibited dominant annual oscillation in the mesosphere. From 63 to 85 km, the annual amplitude of lidar density is larger than those of SABER and MSIS-00. PDD (Percentage of Density Difference) was calculated to investigate the mesospheric density climatology. The largest density variations of lidar, MSIS-00, and SABER occurred at around 72 km. Both lidar and SABER PDD reached their maximum in May, about one month earlier than the MSIS-00; while the minimum PDD appeared in late December for all datasets.
摘要: 基于WACCM+DART（Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model，Data Assimilation Research Test-Bed）临近空间资料同化预报系统，以2016年2月的一次平流层爆发性增温（SSW）事件为例，开展了临近空间SABER（Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry）和MLS（Microwave Limb Sounder）温度观测资料集合滤波同化试验.结果表明：同化SABER和MLS温度观测资料可显著降低WACCM模式在中间层和平流层中上部（0.001～10hPa）大气温度场的预报误差，改善CR试验在SSW发生时中间层变冷现象偏强、纬向风场首次发生反转的层次偏低以及增温恢复阶段0.1～10hPa的东风层提前消退、纬向风速偏大、平流层顶位置偏高等现象.基于ERA5（The Fifth Generation of ECMWF Reanalyses）再分析资料的检验表明：同化SABER和MLS温度资料明显有利于减小北半球高纬度地区（60°-90°N）平流层中上层和下中间层（0.1～14hPa）纬向风场以及平流层和中间层中下层（0.01～100hPa）温度场的分析误差；同化低层大气观测也有利于减小0.1～14hPa纬向风场和0.01～100hPa温度场的分析误差，但是不如同化SABER和MLS温度资料对临近空间纬向风场和温度场分析误差的改善效果显著.